Ann Thorac Surg 1987;43:544-549
© 1987 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons
Prophylactic Antibiotic Treatment Prevents Infection after Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Study in Dogs
Willem van Oeveren, M.Sc,
Jacob Dankert, M.D.,
Charles R.H. Wildevuur, M.D., Ph.D.
From the Department of Cardio-Pulmonary Surgery, Research Division, and the Department of Hospital Epidemiology, Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital, Groningen, The Netherlands
Accepted for publication August 25, 1986.
* Address reprint requests to Dr. Wildevuur, Department of Cardiopulmonary Surgery, Research Division, University Hospital, Oostersingel 59, 9713 EZ Groningen, The Netherlands
The effect of two prophylactic antibiotic regimens during cardiopulmonary bypass (CFB) was investigated in dogs. Airborne contamination was determined by spraying two different bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens) into the air of the operating room. Dogs were operated on and underwent CPB with a bubble oxygenator. Pericardial suction, either conventional (blood-air) or selective (only blood), was used. Particularly in the first situation, an impaired humoral host defense is induced. In dogs given the regimen consisting of penicillin G (benzylpenicillin), gentamicin sulfate, and flucloxacillin, the number of contaminated sites for both bacteria was reduced (p < .01) compared with those given cefuroxime. The effectiveness of the combined antibiotic regimen could be ascribed to increased serum bactericidal activity and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) killing capacity. Cefuroxime enhanced the PMN respiratory burst. As a result, two weeks postoperatively the rate of infection was small in both groups. We conclude that prior to CPB, antibiotics should be administered prophylactically to overcome a period of impaired humoral host defense during CPB.
This work was supported by Grant No. 77.0874 from the Dutch Heart Foundation.
The assistance of Jetta Fahner and Wietske Postma for the bacteriological studies and of J. M. Elstrodt and D. Meyer for the operations is gratefully acknowledged.
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